Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Port-Hinterland Transport and Logistics
[…]In spite of the sustained growth of port throughput worldwide, as well as of the substantial infrastructure investments of ports and their efforts to reform and modernize, hinterland transport—representing 60% of the costs of the global maritime supply chain—has not kept pace; productivity in the maritime leg of the supply chain has not been followed by productivity in its hinterland part, apart from the introduction of double-stack trains in the US in the 1980s, or the adoption of the dry port concept in the 2000s.
Moreover, the gigantism in container shipping is straining port infrastructure and cargohandling capacity, causing significant diseconomies of scale, which propagate throughout the supply chain. For many seaports, the weakest link in their transportation chains is hinterland access, due to congested roads and inadequate or non-existent rail connections, causing delays and increases in transport costs.
[…]A reversal of trends can recently be seen however. From the earlier days when ports were obliged to move downstream to find space, ports now look back to their hinterlands to find the additional space they require. Inland intermodal terminals (or dry ports) are thus mushrooming, connected to seaports by rail, road or inland waterways. As such, inland intermodal terminals are usually developed close to railway and motorway junctions to facilitate the transfer of containers between modes of transport, favouring, to the extent possible, the more environmentally friendly transport modes, such as rail and inland waterways[…]